May 22-26, 2017
Abstract: Capture and permanent sequestration of biogenic CO2 emissions play a pivotal role in stringent climate change mitigation. Bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) technologies, in particular, can remove atmospheric CO2 emissions while producing valuable energy products such as fuels, electricity, and gaseous hydrocarbons. Yet, most near-term assessments of climate change mitigation opportunities assume BECCS is either too costly or commercially unavailable. In contrast, biogenic CO2 capture and sequestration from industrial fermentation is already deployed at commercial scale, including several corn ethanol facilities in the United States. Such capture opportunities target pure streams of biogenic CO2 from existing biofuel infrastructure, resulting in a low cost of capture and sequestration. Moreover, existing and proposed policies in the United States, including California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) and the 2016 Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage Act (S.3179, the CCUS Act), could provide sufficient financial incentive for industry-wide deployment of CCS for saline aquifers. Here, we study the abatement potential and costs of biogenic CO2 capture and sequestration from biorefineries in the United States using process engineering, spatial optimization, and lifecycle assessment. We minimize the total cost of capture, compression, transportation, and sequestration, building from existing spatial pipeline optimization models . We consider two options for CO2 transport: pipelines, and trucking, which recent work has shown is cost-effective at low CO2 volumes . Preliminary results identify ~44 Mt of biogenic CO2 emitted annually from 217 facilities, most of which can be captured for under $30/tCO2. We also find strong evidence for economies of scale in pipeline transportation. Recent financial incentives under California’s LCFS (~$75-150/tCO2 abated) and proposed in the U.S Senate ($50/tCO2 stored in saline aquifers) suggest a substantial near-term opportunity to permanently sequester biogenic CO2, given proper policy incentives. This opportunity can catalyze the growth of carbon capture, transport, utilization, and sequestration across the U.S. and improve the lifecycle impacts of conventional ethanol. When complete, we expect to produce the following results: Spatially-optimized infrastructure design and supply curves for biogenic CO2 capture, transport, and sequestration in the United States, for both pipeline and truck transport Lifecycle carbon intensity impacts for transportation fuels, evaluated under CA-GREET Cost-optimal deployment levels under multiple CA LCFS and CCUS Act price scenarios References:  N. Johnson, J. Ogden, Detailed spatial modeling of carbon capture and storage (CCS) infrastructure deployment in the southwestern United States, Energy Procedia, 4 (2011).  P. Psarras, P. Bains, P. Charoensawadpong, M. Carringon, S. Comello, S. Reichelstein, J. Wilcox, A Pathway Towards Reducing CO2 Emissions from the Industrial Sector (In Press).
Daniel L. Sanchez, Nils Johnson, and Sean McCoy, "Cost-effective, near-term deployment of carbon capture and storage from biorefineries in the United States" in "CO2 Summit III: Pathways to Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Deployment", Jen Wilcox (Colorado School of Mines, USA) Holly Krutka (Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association, USA) Simona Liguori (Colorado School of Mines, USA) Niall Mac Dowell (Imperial College, United Kingdom) Eds, ECI Symposium Series, (2017). http://dc.engconfintl.org/co2_summit3/14