High velocity horizontal gas jets are applied to various industrial processes. In this work, a new thermal technique has been developed to measure the penetration length of horizontal gas jets. Experiments were conducted in a fluidized bed with a height of 1.23m and a rectangular cross section of 0.10m × 0.50m. The fluidized bed particles, which were either petroleum coke or sand, were heated by an in-bed electrical heater to temperatures between 300°C and 500°C. Cold gases, such as helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, were injected into the hot fluidized bed via a horizontal nozzle operating over a range of velocities. Based on the experimental results, a new empirical correlation was developed to predict the penetration length of jets issuing from the horizontal sonic nozzle at high temperature.
Cedric Briens, Feng Li, Franco Berruti, and Jennifer McMillan, "PENETRATION OF HIGH VELOCITY HORIZONTAL GAS JETS INTO A FLUIDIZED BED AT HIGH TEMPERATURE" in "The 13th International Conference on Fluidization - New Paradigm in Fluidization Engineering", Eds, ECI Symposium Series, Volume RP6 (2010). http://dc.engconfintl.org/fluidization_xiii/118