May 22-27, 2016
Functionalized solid amine-based temperature swing adsorption (TSA) processes have recently been proposed as a potential way to reduce the energy-penalty of post-combustion carbon capture processes (1). If TSA is to be carried out at large scale and with high energy-efficiency, continuously operated counter-current contactors are required for thermodynamic reasons. This could, generally, be achieved by using moving bed contactors. However, the heat exchange requirement of TSA is significant and heat transfer is poor in fixed and moving beds. Therefore, multi-stage fluidized bed contactors with counter-current flow of solids and gas phase and immersed heat exchange surfaces may solve the heat transfer challenge while maintaining the thermodynamic process requirements. Experiments have shown that adsorption and desorption kinetics of suitable functionalized amine sorbents are fast and equilibrium loadings are practically reached in the stages (1). Thus, heat exchange is the dominant limiting factor for a practical stage design in multi-stage fluidized bed TSA. The present work rationally develops design requirements for TSA stages based on the necessary heat exchange rates. The considered particles are Geldart Type B (diameter 200-300 µm, particle density 1000-1500 kg/m3). Scalability of the design proposal is considered and vertically orientated heat exchanger tubes are compared to horizontal tube bundles. The net movement and mixing of particles within the bubbling bed stage must be maintained in spite of the emulsified heat exchangers (possible dead zones in the area of the tube bundles). It is shown that the pressure drop of multi-stage fluidized bed TSA units for flue gas CO2 capture is practically determined by the heat exchange requirement and not by the space-time of the solids for the adsorption. Future work will employ a bubbling fluidized bed heat exchange testing device for optimization of the heat exchanger geometry with respect to heat transfer rates and particle residence time distribution in the stage. Heat exchange measurement devices have been presented recently in literature for horizontal tube bundles and Geldart Type A particles (2), but the importance of the heat exchanger issue in continuous fluidized bed TSA requires the detailed investigation for the Geldart B range, potentially considering the macroscopic particle movement relative to the heat exchangers within each individual TSA stage.
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Gerhard Hofer, Tobias Pröll, Johannes Fuchs, and Gerhard Schöny, "Heat transfer challenge and design evaluation for a multi-stage temperature swing adsorption (TSA) process" in "Fluidization XV", Jamal Chaouki, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada Franco Berruti, Wewstern University, Canada Xiaotao Bi, UBC, Canada Ray Cocco, PSRI Inc. USA Eds, ECI Symposium Series, (2016). http://dc.engconfintl.org/fluidization_xv/42