May 18-22, 2003
Since totally wettable hydrophilic polymer surfaces from hydrophobic polymers (PMMA, PTFE, PET and PC) have been demonstrated for the first time at Materials Research Society meeting, 1995 Fall meeting, Boston, the application of ion assisted reaction (IAR), in which energetic ions (0.5~1.5 keV) are irradiated on materials with blowing reactive gases near the irradiating surfaces, has been extended to various polymer, ceramic and metal for creating permanent hydrophilic surfaces. The surface energy was measured by Youngs equation and the highest energy, Es, of 60~70 mN/m, which is similar to surface energy of water (Es of H2O : 72 mN/m) is obtained by controlling ion dose, energy, and amount of blown gas. The higher surface energy of materials possesses the more wettable surface, and relation between wettability and adhesion has been discussed. The remarkable result is the strong adhesion of inert nonattachable material such as Pt on the modified surface. The improvements of adhesions, wettability and surface energy are mainly due to polar force and hydrophilic functional groups such as C=O, (C=O)-O, C-O, etc. on the modified surface without surface damage by surface analyses. Advantages of the method are (1) high reproducibility, (2) simplicity, (3) changing ability of wettability degree, and (4) easy connection to conventional semiconductor process line. Improvements of efficiencies by changing heat transfer coefficients have been presented for the compact heat exchanger system.
Ki-Hwan Kim, Jun Sik Cho, Sung Han, Young Whoan Beag, Byung Ha Kang, Samchul Ha, and Seok-Keun Koh, "Permanent Hydrophilic Surface Formation by Ion Assisted Reaction" in "Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning: Fundamentals and Applications", Paul Watkinson, University of British Columbia, Canada; Hans Müller-Steinhagen, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and University of Stuttgart; M. Reza Malayeri, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) Eds, ECI Symposium Series, (2003). http://dc.engconfintl.org/heatexchanger/15