May 18-22, 2003
A thermal fouling study was undertaken using three sour Canadian crude oils. Experiments were carried out in a re-circulation fouling loop, equipped with an annular (HTRI) electrically heated probe. Fluids at pressures of about 1000-1340 kPa under a nitrogen atmosphere were re-circulated at a velocity of 0.75 m/s for periods of 48 hours, and the decline in heat transfer coefficient followed under conditions of constant heat flux. Bulk temperatures were varied over the range 200-285°C, and initial surface temperatures from 300 to 380°C. Heat fluxes were in the range of 265-485 kW/m2.
M. Srinivasan and A. P. Watkinson, "Fouling of Some Canadian Crude Oils" in "Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning: Fundamentals and Applications", Paul Watkinson, University of British Columbia, Canada; Hans Müller-Steinhagen, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and University of Stuttgart; M. Reza Malayeri, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) Eds, ECI Symposium Series, (2003). http://dc.engconfintl.org/heatexchanger/26