Utility operation with frequent fuel switching is a common practice, forced by cheaper coal availability in the international market. Additionally, a substitution of coal by cheaper local secondary fuels, ranging from forest wood to sewage sludge and industrial or domestic residues, is gaining importance. Switching between different fuels, even if these do not differ much from the design coal, enhances operational problems arising from ash deposition. In order to prevent operational problems, through comprehension of the phenomena taking place within the furnace, appropriate sampling and characterization of the deposits are necessary. Methods commonly used for analysis of ash deposits and their characterization are summarized in this paper. The goals of the experimental work at the Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) are then summarized. Finally, work on modeling the slagging and fouling phenomena or their characterization is presented.
Ch. López, S. Unterberger, J. Maier, and K. R. G. Hein , "Overview of Actual Methods for Characterization of Ash Depostion" in "Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning: Fundamentals and Applications", Paul Watkinson, Hans Müller-Steinhagen, and M. Reza Malayeri Eds, ECI Symposium Series, Volume RP1 (2003). http://dc.engconfintl.org/heatexchanger/38