Conference Dates

May 18-22, 2003

First Page



The mechanisms of mixed salt crystallisation fouling on heat transfer surfaces have been investigated for convective and sub-cooled flow boiling heat transfer. Effects of various operating parameters such as solution composition and hydrodynamics of the system, on crystallisation fouling of mixtures of calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate have been studied experimentally. The results of the experiments were used to develop a mechanistic model for prediction of fouling resistances. Model predictions were compared with the measured experimental data when calcium sulphate and calcium carbonate form and deposit on the heat transfer surface, simultaneously. Deviations ranging from 6% to 25% were observed which confirm the suitability of the model. Finally, the crystalline samples were analysed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction and Ion Chromatography techniques. Fractal analysis performed on Scanning Electron Microscopy photographs of the deposits was used to quantify deposit characteristics by introducing the fractal dimension as a new characteristic quantity