June 5-10, 2005 - Kloster Irsee, Germany

Editors:   Hans Müller-Steinhagen, German Aerospace Centre, Stuttgart, Germany
  M. Reza Malayeri, University of Stuttgart, Germany
  A. Paul Watkinson, The University of British Columbia, Canada

The articles for these proceedings are peer-reviewed.

PREFACE

The formation of process-related deposits on the heat transfer surfaces is probably the least understood phenomenon in heat exchangers, causing severe problems in design and operation of the equipment. In recent years, the importance of this phenomenon has received further attention due to the increasing cost of energy, climate changes as a result of energy conversion processes, technical advancement requiring more efficient thermal management, and changes in the nature of feed materials, such as:

  • thermal desalination and water treatment processes to produce more potable water for the growing world population,
  • oil refineries are processing heavier and denser crude oils, to utilize reservoirs which have so far not been economical,
  • fuel processing from a variety of sources with a high content of impurities, such as biomass, coal-gasification etc,
  • miniature thermal devices, such as laboratory/analytical equipment, micro reactors and ultra-compact heat exchangers, may experience fouling problem,
  • highly integrated thermal management processes to safe on energy, cost, weight and volume.

Nevertheless, present design procedures still involve massive uncertainties. The predictions of fine-tuned correlations and computer models for clean heat transfer coefficients need to be corrected by crudely estimated fouling resistances. Models for the prediction of fouling rates can only be applied to a very limited number of idealised deposition processes.

In contrast, efficient mechanical and chemical fouling mitigation and cleaning techniques have found their way into regular plant operation through a mainly empirical trial and error approach. These anti-fouling strategies have few or even no links to academic research findings, since industry and academic research institutions have traditionally approached the problem of fouling from different aspects, and there has not been enough interaction and exchange of information.

Bi-yearly conferences on heat exchanger fouling have been organised by Engineering Conferences International (previously United Engineering Foundation) since 1995, with the aim to bridge the gap between the two communities. These meetings provide an opportunity for experts from industry, academia and government research centres from around the world to present their latest research and technological developments in the areas of fouling mitigation and cleaning technologies. They involve overview presentations, technical papers, poster sessions, and panel discussions. Following the highly successful meetings in San Luis Obispo (1995), Lucca (1997), Banff (1999), Davos (2001) and Santa Fé (2003), the 6th conference in this series was held in Kloster Irsee, Germany, in June 2005. The aim of this conference was to facilitate innovative thinking and to explore new theoretical and practical approaches to address the tremendous challenges due to fouling of heat exchangers. The conference attracted representatives from a wide range of universities, research institutes and companies and hence was able to provide participants with excellent technical presentations and a very conducive environment for personal discussions. In total, 65 participants attended the conference, presenting 57 papers/posters, which was the highest numbers in this series. The next Engineering Conferences International meeting on heat exchanger fouling will be held in Canada in May 2007. More information will soon be available at:

http://www.engconfintl.org/

The following papers have been presented and recommended for publication in the final conference proceedings, after a careful refereeing and revising process. The proceedings cover various aspects of heat exchanger fouling along with updated state-of-art fouling mitigation and cleaning strategies. The present e-proceedings as well as those from the previous conference in 2003 can be obtained free of charge from the following homepage of Engineering Conferences International Symposium Series:

http://dc.engconfintl.org/

A limited number of hardcopies of the 2001 fouling conference proceedings (Davos, Switzerland) can still be purchased from Dr Malayeri, see below. The conference chairs and scientific secretary wish to thank everybody who contributed towards the conference and the conference proceedings, i.e.

  • all the authors and participants who invested substantial efforts to produce high-quality papers and to attend the conference
  • the technical referees who helped to improve the quality of these papers even more, by providing valuable and helpful comments
  • the Conference Advisory Committee and the Session Chairmen
  • Barbara Hickernell and Frank Schmidt, and their team from Engineering Conferences International, for an effective organization.

Conference Chairmen
Hans Müller-Steinhagen
German Aerospace Centre and University of Stuttgart (Germany)

A. Paul Watkinson
University of British Columbia (Canada)

Conference Scientific Secretary
M. Reza Malayeri
University of Stuttgart (Germany)
m.malayeri@itw.uni-stuttgart.de

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Cover Page (Article)

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Table of Contents, Hans Müller-Steinhagen, M. Reza Malayeri, and A. Paul Watkinson (Article)

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Preface, M. Reza Malayeri (Article)

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DEPOSITION FROM CRUDE OILS IN HEAT EXCHANGERS, A. Paul Watkinson (Article)

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EXTRACTION OF CRUDE OIL FOULING MODEL PARAMETERS FROM PLANT EXCHANGER MONITORING, G. T. Polley, D. I. Wilson, S. J. Pugh, and E. Petitjean (Article)

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TEN YEARS OF EBERT, PANCHAL AND THE ‘THRESHOLD FOULING’ CONCEPT, D. I. Wilson, G. T. Polley, and S. J. Pugh (Article)

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BLENDING EFFECTS ON FOULING OF FOUR CRUDE OILS, Z S. Saleh, R. Sheikholeslami, and A. Paul Watkinson (Article)

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FOULING BEHAVIOR OF PYROLYSIS GASOLINE OVER CARBON STEEL AND STAINLESS STEEL ALLOYS, Michael Sprague, Patricio Herrera, and Andrzej Krzywicki (Article)

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Mathematical Modeling of Deposition of Carbonaceous Material from Heavy Hydrocarbon Vapors, Wenxing Zhang and A. Paul Watkinson (Article)

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FOULING MITIGATION BY DESIGN, J. M. Nesta and C. A. Bennett (Article)

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CONTRIBUTING FACTOR ANALYSIS AND ITS APPLICATION FOR AN ALCOHOL PLANT REBOILER FOULING PHENOMENA, Shinji Isogai, Mitsutaka Nakamura, and Seijirou Nishimura (Article)

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DEPOSIT FORMATION IN THE EVAPORATOR OF A SULPHURIC ACID RECOVERY PLANT FOR TiO 2 PIGMENT PRODUCTION, H. Müller-Steinhagen and D. Lancefield (Article)

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FOULING MITIGATION OF A REBOILER BY OPTIMIZATION OF ADDITIVE AND OPERATING CONDITIONS, Shinji Isogai and Mitsutaka Nakamura (Article)

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ENHANCED HEAT EXCHANGER TUBES: THEIR FOULING TENDENCY AND POTENTIAL CLEANUP, George F. Hays, Edward S. Beardwood, and Steven J. Colby (Article)

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A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF SURFACE COATING ON THE INITIAL DEPOSITION MECHANISMS OF DAIRY FOULING, S. S. Ramachandra, S. Wiehe, M. M. Hyland, X. D. Chen, and B. Bansal (Article)

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ANTI-FOULING STAINLESS STEEL BASED SURFACES FOR MILK HEATING PROCESSES, R. Rosmaninho, G. Rizzo, H. Müller-Steinhagen, and L. F. Melo (Article)

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DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF Ni–Cu–P–PTFE COMPOSITE COATINGS TO MINIMIZE MICROBIAL ADHESION, Q. Zhao, Y. Liu, C. Wang, S. Wang, and Hans M. Müller-Steinhagen (Article)

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THE FOULING OF ALLOY-800 HEAT EXCHANGER TUBES BY NICKEL FERRITE UNDER BULK BOILING CONDITIONS, J. J. Cossaboom and D. H. Lister (Article)

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PARTICULATE FOULING GROWTH RATE AS INFLUENCED BY THE CHANGE IN THE FOULING LAYER STRUCTURE, M. S. Abd-Elhady, C.C. M. Rindt, J. G. Wijers, and A. A. van Steenhoven (Article)

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TODAY’S TECHNIQUES FOR HEAT EXCHANGER PROTECTION VIA PARTICLE FILTRATION, Kathy Colby and Caroline Hoffman (Article)

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SKIM MILK FOULING DURING OHMIC HEATING, Bipan Bansal, Xiao Dong Chen, and Sean X Q Lin (Article)

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HEAT TREATMENT OF DAIRY PRODUCT BY A FLAT OHMIC CELL: IMPACT OF THE REYNOLDS NUMBER, FLUID RHEOLOGY AND FOULING PRESENCE ON THE ELECTRODE SURFACE TEMPERATURE, M. A. Ayadi, T. Benezech, F. Chopard, M. Berthou, and J. C. Leuliet (Article)

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FOULING OF HEAT EXCHANGERS BY DAIRY FLUIDS – A REVIEW, Bipan Bansal and Xiao Dong Chen (Article)

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THE POOR PERFORMANCE OF NaOH IN THE DISSOLUTION OF WHEY PROTEIN GELS AT VERY HIGH pH, Ruben Mercadé-Prieto, Xiao Dong Chen, Robert J. Falconer, William R. Paterson, and D. I. Wilson (Article)

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PULSED FLOW CLEANING OF WHEY PROTEIN FOULING LAYERS, K. Bode, R. J. Hooper, W. Augustin, William R. Paterson, D. I. Wilson, and S. Scholl (Article)

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ANALYTICAL APPROACHES FOR CALCULATION OF SHEAR STRESS ENHANCEMENT IN LAMINAR PULSED FLOWS, M. S. Celnik, M. J. Patel, M. Pore, F. Brahim, W. Augustin, S. Scholl, D. M. Scott, and D. I. Wilson (Article)

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STRATEGIES AGAINST PARTICLE FOULING IN THE CHANNELS OF A MICRO HEAT EXCHANGER SUBJECT TO μPIV FLOW PATTERN MEASUREMENTS, V. Heinzel, A. Jianu, and H. Sauter (Article)

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PARTICULATE FOULING IN MICRO-STRUCTURED DEVICES, N. Kockmann, M. Engler, and P. Woias (Article)

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ANTI FOULING INVESTIGATIONS WITH ULTRASOUND IN A MICROSTRUCTURED HEAT EXCHANGER, W. Benzinger, U. Schygulla, M. Jäger, and K. Schubert (Article)

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‘ZERO FOULING’ SELF-CLEANING HEAT EXCHANGER, D. G. Klaren, E. F. de Boer, and D. W. Sullivan (Article)

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FOULING REDUCTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED HEAT EXCHANGER, Y. D. Jun, K. B. Lee, S. Z. Islam, and S. B. Ko (Article)

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COMPACT SELF-CLEANING FLUIDIZED BED HEAT EXCHANGERS WITH EM BAFFLES, Dick G. Klaren and E. F. de Boer (Article)

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HEAT EXCHANGER TUBE INSERTS AN UPDATE IN NEW APPLICATIONS WITH TROUBLE SHOOTING ASPECTS IN CRUDE UNITS, RESIDUE SERVICE, REBOILERS, U-TUBES “SPIRELF®, TURBOTAL®, AND FIXOTAL® SYSTEMS” APPLICATION EXAMPLES IN CHEMICAL PLANTS AND REFINERIES, Francois Pouponnot and Arthur W. Kreuger (Article)

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Measurement of Particle-Fluid Velocities of a Particle Containing Fluid Flow in a Grooved Channel, Dong-Xu Jin, Dae-Young Lee, and Yoon-Pyo Lee (Article)

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TUBULAR TYPE HEAT FLUX METER FOR MONITORING INTERNAL SCALE DEPOSITS IN LARGE STEAM BOILERS, J. Taler and D. Taler (Article)

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MONITORING AND MODELLING OF GAS-SIDE BOILER FOULING, R. Korbee, M. Losurdo, J. Lensselink, M. K. Cieplik, and F. Verhoeff (Article)

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INITIATION OF CaSO4 SCALE FORMATION ON HEAT TRANSFER SURFACES UNDER POOL BOILING CONDITIONS, M. Reza Malayeri and Hans M. Müller-Steinhagen (Article)

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NEURAL NETWORK BASED ON-LINE DETECTION OF FOULING IN A WATER CIRCULATING TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER (WCTC), S. Lecoeuche and S. Lalot (Article)

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REAL TIME FOULING DIAGNOSIS AND HEAT EXCHANGER PERFORMANCE, Fábio dos Santos Liporace and Sérgio Gregório de Oliveira (Article)

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THE ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECT OF HEAT EXCHANGER FOULING, T. Casanueva-Robles and T. R. Bott (Article)

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EFFECT OF POLARIZATION ON MANGANESE BIOFOULING OF HEAT EXCHANGER SURFACES, T. Kuosmanen, M. Peltola, M. Raulio, M. Pullainen, T. Laurila, J-F Selin, H. Huopalainen, and M. Salkinoja-Salonen (Article)

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ECONOMIC AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TWO OXIDISING BIOCIDES IN SEA-WATER COOLING SYSTEMS, T. Casanueva-Robles, E. Nebot, J. F. Casanueva, and M. M. Fernández-Bastón (Article)

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CRYSTALLIZATION FOULING ON HEAT TRANSFER SURFACES – 25 YEARS RESEARCH IN BRAUNSCHWEIG, M. W. Bohnet (Article)

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MOLECULAR MODELLING APPROACH ON FOULING OF THE PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER: TITANIUM HYDROXYLS, SILANOLS AND SULPHATES ON TiO2 SURFACES, E. Puhakka, M. Riihimäki, and R. L. Keiski (Article)

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CALCIUM SULFATE SCALING DELAY TIMES UNDER SENSIBLE HEATING CONDITIONS, F. Fahiminia, A. Paul Watkinson, and N. Epstein (Article)

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INDUCTION PERIOD OF HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEATION DURING CRYSTALLISATION FOULING: ION IMPLANTATION EFFECTS, G. Rizzo, H. Müller-Steinhagen, and E. Richter (Article)

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OPTIMISED HEAT EXCHANGER MANAGEMENT - ACHIEVING FINANCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL TARGETS, S. Rädler and U. Ousko-Oberhoffe (Article)

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ON-LINE CLEANING SCHEDULE FOR HEAT EXCHANGERS IN A HEAT EXCHANGER NETWORK - THE CASE OF CRUDE DISTILLATION UNIT, M. Markowski and K. Urbaniec (Article)

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FOULING MITIGATION BY DESIGN, J. Nesta and C. A. Bennett (Article)