June 5-10, 2016
In France, Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), including non-hazardous waste from economic activities collected together with post-consumer waste, are primarily incinerated (approximately 30% in 2010; ADEME, 2012). Yet, current Life Cycle Inventory databases do not precisely account for the characteristics of waste incineration in the specific French context, in particular with respect to air emissions, use of reactants, energy recovery rates and treatment of bottom ashes. This study accordingly aims at collecting environmental and energy data specific to French incinerators for their further integration into a dedicated Life Cycle Inventory model. The results of data collection and analysis are focused at in this presentation. Data were collected considering 90 French incinerators, respectively operated by SITA, TIRU and VEOLIA, and representing approximately 73% of the total mass of MSW incinerated in France as of 2012. Firstly, French incineration installations were classified according to their abatement technologies. Wet systems (with liquid emissions) combined with electrostatic precipitators and semi dry/semi wet systems combined with a fabric filter are predominant in France regarding dedusting and acid gas treatment (they respectively represent 34 and 25% of the total amount of waste incinerated). At the same time, Selective Catalytic Reduction (high temperature) combined with reactants for Dediox (36%) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction combined with reactants for Dediox (32%) are predominant with respect to NOx and dioxin abatement. Secondly, data of process-specific emissions (NOx, particles, dioxins, etc.) have been collected, considering 90 incinerators and 3 years in a raw (2012 to 2014), for their further statistical treatment by category of abatement technology. The correlation between emission factors and abatement technologies is discussed. Considering each kind of emission factor, a distribution of values is accordingly associated either with a given technology of abatement or with the whole French incineration installations. In addition, building on the mass balance at the scale of one French incineration plant, transfer coefficients are calculated in order to further infer waste-specific emissions (e.g. metals) in the model for Life Cycle Inventory of waste incineration in France. Finally, additional data relative respectively to energy (recovery and consumption), to the use of reactants and to downstream treatment of bottom ashes were collected and further statistically treated, considering the 90 incinerators under study. In particular, MSW appear to be incinerated primarily (55%) in plants cogenerating heat and electricity. As a conclusion, the potential use of these data in a Life Cycle Inventory model dedicated to French incineration is more specifically discussed.
This study was partly funded by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) in the framework of the PCI project. The authors wish to thank Patrick Boisseau (TIRU), Jacques Giacomoni (VEOLIA), Lionel Kosior (SITA) and Cédrik Priault (VEOLIA) for their contributions to this work.
Reference: ADEME, 2012. L’incinération des déchets ménagers et assimilés. Les avis de l’ADEME. Décembre 2012.
Antoine Beylot, Antoine Hochar, Pascale Michel, Marie Descat, Yannick Ménard, and Jacques Villeneuve, "LCA of municipal solid waste incineration in France: from comprehensive site‐ specific data to Life Cycle Inventory modeling" in "Life Cycle Assessment and Other Assessment Tools for Waste Management and Resource Optimization", Professor Umberto Arena, Second University of Naples, Italy Professor Thomas Astrup, Denmark Technical University, Denmark Professor Paola Lettieri, University College London, United Kingdom Eds, ECI Symposium Series, (2016). http://dc.engconfintl.org/lca_waste/26