June 18-21, 2006
In recent years, the massive losses caused due to big earthquakes in urban areas. These cause significant casualties and losses. The economic losses exceed several billions dollars per year. The loss may be categorized in two types of direct and indirect loss. Direct economic losses occur just during the earthquakes or immediately after them. Indirect losses are resulted from direct losses. These losses are obtained in Tehran due to damage of Water Network. A scenario earthquake that would severely damage the city is assumed. The acceleration and velocities are determined in Tehran GIS map. The vulnerability coefficient for pipe via accelerations and velocities are given. There were less losses than other earthquakes in the world like Kobe or Los Angeles because the earthquake intensity was less, the soil was stronger and the manpower and maintenance value are much lower in Iran.
Reza Rasti and Farshad Vazinram, "Simulation of Socio-Economic Impacts due to Seismic Damage of Tehran Water Network" in "Geohazards", Professor Farrokh Nadim, International Centre for Geohazards, Oslo, Norway; Dr. Rudolf Pöttler, Managing Director, ILF - Consulting Engineers, Innsbruck, Austria; Professor Herbert Einstein, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA; Professor Herbert Klapperich, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institut für Geotechnik, Freiberg, Germany; Professor Steven Kramer, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA Eds, ECI Symposium Series, (2006). https://dc.engconfintl.org/geohazards/20