Improving eia and lup practice in india: challenges and approaches

Conference Dates

June 19-24, 2016


  1. Introduction

Post 1991 liberalization, there has been a major transformation in the development of the industrial sector in India. Being a cost effective and labor-intensive economy, India has benefited substantially from business process outsourcing over the last two decades, and has built a strong manufacturing and export oriented industrial framework. Presently, in India is 9th in the world in terms of nominal factory output and industry accounts for 25.8% of the total national GDP (Index Mundi, 2014). However, in recent years with increasing industrialization, there is a growing concern about the hazards deriving from industrial sites neighbouring residential areas. Accidents such as the Bhopal tragedy (1984), Indian Oil Corporation fire (2009) and the Fukushima disaster(2011), have already demonstrated of the how proximity of populated areas to industrial sites in India as well as elsewhere, can severely exacerbate the consequences of accidents.

The conflict between the environmental and human safety versus industrial development is a critical one for a developing country like India. India’s constitution was one of the first to provide for the protection and improvement of environment (Gupta, 2006). Several codes exist to separate certain industrial facilities from neighboring developments (Punjab Pollution Control Board, 1999;Mistry, 2011), and government has always distinguished between ‘industrial zones’ and other land uses. Despite this, demographic pressure, lack of consolidated Land Use Planning (LUP), absence of objective risk tolerability criteria, and diversity within the states of India in terms of development levels and land use patterns (Census Data, 2001) are a few reasons that has led to gradual creation of several high-risk areas.

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