July 1-6, 2007
A comparative study of the calcium phosphate fouling process, with and without proteins, was carried out using both standard 316 2R stainless steel and 2R surfaces modified by TiN magnetron sputtering. Fouling behavior was assessed in a heat transfer flow cell operating in the turbulent flow regime. The fouling curves resulting from calcium phosphate deposition in the absence of proteins were substantially different from the ones obtained when protein was present. In this last case, two different fouling periods could be observed. The surface energy of the modified materials was found to affect the deposition parameters (rate of deposition and final amount of deposit) leading to higher amounts of deposit on higher energy surfaces in the absence of protein, while leading to less deposit in its presence. The standard 316 2R substrate proved to be less prone to fouling from protein-calcium phosphate solutions than the TiN modified surfaces. However, the same conclusion could not be drawn for calcium phosphate solutions.
R. Rosmaninho, G. Rizzo, H. Muller-Steinhagen, and L. F. Melo, "FLOW CELL STUDIES ON FOULING CAUSED BY PROTEIN -CALCIUM PHOSPHATE DEPOSITION IN TURBULENT FLOW" in "Heat Exchanger Fouling and Cleaning VII", Hans Müller-Steinhagen, Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Centre (DLR) and Institute for Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering, University of Stuttgart, Germany; M. Reza Malayeri, University of Stuttgart, Germany; A. Paul Watkinson, The University of British Columbia, Canada Eds, ECI Symposium Series, (2007). https://dc.engconfintl.org/heatexchanger2007/18