Conference Dates

July 1-6, 2007

First Page



Modified stainless steel surfaces were fouled with whey protein solutions to study the deposition mechanisms and the effects of surface modification. Stainless steel samples were coated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) and titanium nitride (TiN). These surfaces are expected to present different surface chemistries to stainless steel in terms of their functional groups and hydrophobic or hydrophilic nature. Thus, it is expected that foulant-surface interactions will differ for the various fouled surfaces. The substrates were exposed to a flowing whey protein solution in a fouling rig designed to achieve laminar flow. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) was used to study the initial protein-surface interactions of samples fouled for 1 minute at 75°C. Ellipsometry was used to study the fouling and cleaning performance of samples fouled at 75°C and 85°C for up to 30 minutes followed by ultrasonic caustic cleaning of selected samples. XPS showed the presence of similar protein functional groups on all fouled surfaces. The bonding mechanisms during fouling of DLC is different to the stainless steel and TiN surfaces. The peptide link played a more active role at the deposit-surface interface for the non-polar DLC surface, while it was less significant for the two polar surfaces. Ellipsometry revealed that for the three surfaces, fouling increased in the order DLC