Observation of the behavior of additives in copper electroplating using a microfluidic device
May 19-23, 2019
Nowadays, high performance of integrated circuits is owing its interconnections and packaging technologies, and copper electroplating is widely used for the fabrication of wirings since 1997, so called "The IBM shock". IBM announced chips with copper interconnects in 1997. The copper wirings were made by filling copper into vias in an insulating layer. Surprisingly, wet electroplating in acid copper sulfate was employed for the copper filling because preferential deposition from via bottoms, i.e. superfilling, was available by addition of several organic additives into the copper sulfate bath. However, at that time, the mechanism of superfilling was not clarified. Then, CEAC (Curvature Enhanced Accelerator Coverage) mechanism was proposed by Moffat et al. and the accelerator based theory is widely recognized as the principle of the superfilling for the sub-micron scale vias.
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Masanori Hayase, Takanori Akita, Mineyoshi Tomie, Ryo Ikuta, and Haruki Egoshi, "Observation of the behavior of additives in copper electroplating using a microfluidic device" in "Semiconductor Technology for Ultra Large Scale Integrated Circuits and Thin Film Transistors VII (ULSIC VS TFT 7)", Yue Kuo, Texas A&M University, USA Junichi Murota, Tohoku University, Japan Yukiharu Uraoka, Nara Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan Yasuhiro Fukunaka, Kyoto University, Japan Eds, ECI Symposium Series, (2019). https://dc.engconfintl.org/ulsic_tft_vii/30